But even those brief accounts are regarded most precious to know Mauryan polity and society. Urdu was used later for literature and at present is the mother tongue of most Indian Muslims and their brethren in Pakistan.
The regionalist stories of the second half of the 19th century including those by George W. The study of inscriptions is called epigraphy. Among the common people of the late Middle Ages there appeared a literary movement counter to that of the romance and exemplum.
The achievements of kings and conquerors are recorded in prasastis, i. The Italian traveler Nicolo Conti travelled India in It is typical of the genre that, while each strophe, or stanzais intended to be part of a narrative sequence, it more often stands by itself, a discrete unit conveying one idea or developing one image.
The Chinese historian, Tsu-Ma-Fien in his historical works presents abundant materials on India, in the first century B.
Brahmanas gives a description of Vedic rituals. We have various types of inscriptions. One example is "The Adventures of Bulukiya", where the protagonist Bulukiya's quest for the herb of immortality leads him to explore the seas, journey to the Garden of Eden and to Jahannamand travel across the cosmos to different worlds much larger than his own world, anticipating elements of galactic science fiction;  along the way, he encounters societies of jinns mermaidstalking serpentstalking treesand other forms of life.
A history which reserves half its narrative for the nineteenth and twentieth centuries may seem more relevant, but it can scarcely do justice to India's extraordinary antiquity. Literature has innumerable qualities and purposes and can open doors to unique situations and worlds which are never wholly removed from our own.
Other Arabian Nights tales deal with lost ancient technologies, advanced ancient civilizations that went astray, and catastrophes which overwhelmed them. In doing this, we renew its promise, participating in it, influencing it in small or major ways, and ultimately help to preserve it for those readers yet to follow and recommence this most incredible journey of endless perceptions and revelations.
The Cyropaedia also contains other narrative interpolations: The archaeological remains are subjected to scientific examination of radio-carbon method for its dates. Indeed, most major stories from the ancient Middle East were in verse: They all retained a close family resemblance that made bilingualism easy and a fact of Indian literary life.
While dealing with religious subjects, they also write about historical persons and political events. It includes the Vedas, the Upanishads, the great epics like the Ramayana and Mahabharata, and the Puranas of the Hindus.
A monumental battle ensues. Archaeological and Literary Sources Article shared by: This spirit, easily recognized in such Irish mythological tales as Longes mac n-Uislenn probably 9th-centuryinfused the chivalric romances that developed somewhat later on the Continent.
His book is a vital source of the early history of Delhi Sultanate. Apollodorus of Athens compiled a handbook of epitomesor abstracts, of those tales around the 2nd century bce, but the tales themselves are no longer extant in their original form.
Travel books, criminal biographies, social description, sermons, and essays occupied the market.
Its characters go back to around bc, but in its present form the epic could not have been composed before bc. The literary source for the reconstruction of ancient Indian history may be classified as follows: (1) Indigenous literature and (2) Accounts of the foreign travelers. The indigenous literature may be divided into a number of varieties, e.g.
religious text, secular text biography, poetic writings and regional literature.
The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry that attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/listener/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces.
Not all writings constitute makomamoa.com recorded materials, such as compilations of data (e.g., a check. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
Short story: Short story, brief fictional prose narrative that is shorter than a novel and that usually deals with only a few characters. The short story is usually concerned with a single effect conveyed in only one or a few significant episodes or scenes.
The form encourages economy of setting, concise. Mahapadma Nanda became King of Magadha and created what looks like the first "Empire" in Northern India. While Indian history begins with some confidence with the Mauyras, the Nandas are now emerging into the light of history with a little more distinctness.
If you are a teacher searching for educational material, please visit PBS LearningMedia for a wide range of free digital resources spanning preschool through 12th grade.Write a short note on the literary sources of south indian history